“The dead are in contact with the living across many cultures; indeed, the two realms are imbricated in a wide variety of superstitious practices (Quigley, 1996, p. 16ff). Pieces of the dead circulate as relics and trophies (Quigley, 1996, p. 247). While attention must be paid to cultural differences, no culture fails to engage its dead in one way or another. Put graphically, in reference specifically to the practice of beheading, ‘‘severed heads always speak, [but] they say different things in different cultures’’ (Janes, 1993, p. 245). The dead communicate to us from monuments and graves, demanding remembrance. Although Michel Serres (Harrison, 2003, p. 21) claims that the first statue was a mummified corpse, I would maintain that, through mummification the corpse becomes something else: a citizen of the dead realm. It signifies a living absence, an emptiness that its mere preservation cannot fill. It connects us to another world through this very absence. It is not in transition from the land of the living; it has arrived in the Underworld,2 and testifies to us about it.”
Baglow, J 2007, The Rights of the Corpse, Mortality, Vol. 12, No. 13, p230, Canada, viewed on the 7th of September 2011.
“Mourning jewelry has existed as a genre in European decorative arts since the Renaissance. Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as women assumed more responsibility for the emotional life within bourgeois society, jewelry provided a way to express tender and deep emotions which might be otherwise prohibited or discouraged. Gifts of remembrance, including tiny portraits in ivory or enamel, bracelets woven of hair, and lockets containing intimate inscriptions were as much a part of love as of loss.”
“Greatly influenced by German romanticism, jewelry containing human hair was common amongst bourgeois women. Hair curled in a decorative pattern was given in friendship or worn to signify closeness between women.” “…acts as a memento mori.”
Simon, M, Objects of Remembrance: Contemporary Mourning Jewelry, Metalsmith Vol. 29 no.5, p24-5, North America, viewed on the 3rd of September 2011.
“The Victorians celebrated death as an individually meaningful event, with lavish funerals, expensive processions, and feast-like wakes. Their funerals were pompous occasions to show off the wealth of the surviving relatives, as well as a time for reflection on one’s own mortality. For the Victorians, this pageant was just as much about status for the living as honoring the dead (Curl, 1972, p. 25).”
“In the socially rigid Victorian society, there was a prescribed set of stringent rules for mourning wear. An appropriate dress for the occasion would be widow’s weeds, an ensemble of black dress, veil and bonnet (Tomasi, Figure 1), which the widow had to wear for two years to be socially acceptable. In fact, those who tried to avoid the expense and restriction of the formal mourning dress were chastised and ostracized. Widows could wear only fabrics that lacked color and luster.”
“The mourning jewelry had to be dull and lusterless. Brooches and larger ornaments echoed the funeral symbolic motifs that had developed over the centuries (Figure 2): arrows and doves, which represent emotional pain and resurrection; the setting sun, a metaphor for death and resurrection; ivy, a symbol of immortality; forgetme-nots, for remembrance; or hair, which is a symbol of life, because it does not decompose after death. Mourners often wore jewelry made from their loved ones’ hair as a continual reminder of their lives together (Hollander, 1978, p. 244).”
Bedikian, S 2008, The death of mourning: From Victorian Crepe to the Little Black Dress, OMEGA, Vol 57(1) p37-8, 40, New York, viewed on the 3rd of September 2011.